世界最大的电渣重熔炉_工业世界之最

编者:化学学者 来源:最有料 时间:2014-12-07 20:56 最签:最大 浏览:

世界最大的电渣重熔炉 上海重型机器厂电渣重熔炉,1972年始建,1982年建成。其炉 可直接熔铸轧辊,熔炼20-30吨的钢锭,240吨的电渣钢锭,锻压30—90万千瓦的核电站大锻件,100万千瓦的火

  世界最大的电渣重熔炉

  上海重型机器厂电渣重熔炉,1972年始建,1982年建成。其炉 可直接熔铸轧辊,熔炼20-30吨的钢锭,240吨的电渣钢锭,锻压30—90万千瓦的核电站大锻件,100万千瓦的火力发电机转子。 它是当今世界最大的电渣重熔炉。

  然而在不久的2009年,中国又建成了,450吨级电渣重熔炉

  上海重机450吨级电渣重熔炉

  工程总投资:1亿元以上

  工程期限:1972年——2009年

上海重机450吨级电渣重熔炉

  2009年8月15日正式投产的450吨电渣重熔炉是目前世界上最大的电渣炉,是上海重型机器厂有限公司自主设计、自行制造和拥有完全自主知识产权的设备。能生产最大直径为3.6米、高度为6米,重量为450吨的电渣锭,等效于600吨级真空浇注钢锭,覆盖了当前世界上最大吨位的锻件用钢锭。

  电渣重熔是利用电流通过熔渣时产生的电阻热作为热源进行熔炼的方法。其主要目的是提纯金属并获得洁净组织均匀致密的钢锭。经电渣重熔的钢,纯度高、含硫低、非金属夹杂物少、钢锭表面光滑、洁净均匀致密、金相组织和化学成分均匀。

  美国霍普金斯(R.K.Hopkins)于20世纪40年代首先提出这种精炼方法的原理。其后苏联和美国相继建立工业生产用的电渣炉。一九五八年,乌克兰德聂泊尔特钢厂建成了世界第一台0.5吨工业电渣炉,使电渣冶金进入了工业化生产进程。60年代中期由于航空、航天、电子、原子能等工业的发展,电渣重熔在苏联、西欧、美国获得较快的发展,但炉子容量不大,一般为0.5~2.5吨。。生产的品种包括:优质合金钢、高温合金、精密合金、耐蚀合金以及铝、铜、钛、银等有色金属的合金。1980年世界电渣重熔钢生产能力已超过120万吨。

  随着电渣冶金的发展及金属材料要求的不断提高 ,钢锭大型化已成为电渣冶金发展的必然趋势。最初各国工业电渣炉容量仅为0.5t,大一些的一般也不超过3吨。八十年代中期,很多国家都有了50吨以上的电渣炉,就连印度这样的发展中国家也建立了88吨电渣炉。

  多年来 ,国外电渣冶金已不满足于一般电渣锭的生产,在工业技术成熟的基础上向着更深更广的领域发展,形成了一个跨专业、跨行业的新学科。已开发出的工艺技术有:电渣熔铸、电渣浇注、电渣转注、电渣热封顶、电渣离心浇注、电渣复合熔铸及快速电渣重熔等。尤其值得重视的是电渣熔铸异形件的发展 ,小到几十克重的不锈钢假牙齿,大到几十吨重的发电机转子,直至重量超过百吨的水泥回转窑炉圈等,均可不经锻造在异形水冷结晶器中直接熔铸成型。现在电渣熔铸的主要产品有大型发电机转子、水轮机叶片、船舶柴油机大型曲轴、各种高压容器、大型环件、各类轧辊、模具、透平涡轮盘、厚壁中空管、石油裂化管、齿轮毛坯、三通管、核电站压水堆主回路管道等。种类规格之多,形状之复杂不胜枚举。除此之外 ,实用性较强,具有发展前景的还有电渣热封顶、电渣离心浇注及快速电渣重熔等。

  The world's largest ESR furnace

  Shanghai heavy machinery plant ESR furnace, built in 1972, built in 1982. Directcasting rolls its furnace, melting of 20-30 tons of steel ingot, electroslag ingotforging 240 tons, 30 to 900000 kilowatts of nuclear power plant of large forgings,1000000 kilowatts of thermal generator rotor. It is the world's largest ESR furnace.

  However in the near 2009, China also built, 450 ton ESR furnace

  Shanghai heavy machine of 450 ton ESR furnace

  The total project investment: 100000000 yuan

  Project period: 1972 -- 2009

  Shanghai heavy machine of 450 ton ESR furnace

  Formally put into operation in August 15, 2009 450 tons of ESR furnaceelectroslag furnace is currently the largest in the world, is the Shanghai Heavy Machinery Plant Co., independent design, manufacture and have complete independent intellectual property rights of equipment. Can produce a maximum diameter of 3.6 meters, height of 6 meters, weighs 450 tons of electroslag ingot,equivalent to 600 tons of vacuum casting ingot, coverage of the current world's largest tonnage of forging ingot.

  Electroslag remelting is produced by using slag resistance heat when current asheat source for melting method. The main objective is the purification of metaland obtain clean even and compact structure of ingot. The electroslag remeltingsteel, high purity, low sulfur, non metallic inclusion, ingot less smooth and clean surface is uniform and compact, the microstructure and chemical composition homogeneous.

  American Hopki (R.K.Hopkins) was first proposed in twentieth Century 40principle this refining method. Then the Soviet Union and the United States have been set up for industrial production of electroslag furnace. In 1958, Ukraine deNie Er special steel built the world's first 0.5 tons of industrial electroslag furnace,the Electroslag Metallurgy has entered industrialized production process. The mid 60's as aerospace, electronics, nuclear energy industry and so on, electroslag remelting get quick development in the Soviet Union, Western Europe, the United States, but the oven capacity is small, usually 0.5 ~ 2.5 tons.. The production ofvarieties include: alloy of high quality alloy steel, high temperature alloy, precision alloy, corrosion resistant alloy, aluminium, copper, titanium, silver and other non-ferrous metal. The 1980 world electroslag remelting steel production capacity hasexceeded 1200000 tons.

  With the requirement of the development of Electroslag Metallurgy and metal material is constantly increasing, large ingot has become the inevitable trend of the development of electroslag metallurgy. The first industrial countries ofelectroslag furnace capacity is only 0.5T, some are generally not more than 3 tons. The mid eighty's, many countries have more than 50 tons of electroslag furnace, even developing countries like India also built 88 tons of electroslag furnace.

  Over the years, the overseas Electroslag Metallurgy has not satisfied with theproduction of electroslag ingot, in the development of industrial technology basedon the mature toward a deeper and wider field, the formation of a newinterdisciplinary, cross industry. Technology has been developed: electroslag remelting, electroslag casting, injection, electroslag electroslag hot topping,centrifugal electroslag casting, electro slag composite casting and electroslag rapid remelting etc.. Of particular importance is the development of special-shaped pieces of electroslag casting, small to a few tens of grams of stainless steel false teeth, to dozens of tons of generator rotor, until the weight of more than 100 tons of rotary cement kiln ring and so on, can not forged in special-shaped water-cooling crystallizer directly cast into type. Now the main products of electroslag casting large generator rotor, turbine blades, marine diesel enginecrankshaft, large pressure container, large ring, all kinds of roller, mould, turbinedisk, thick wall hollow pipe, oil cracking tube, gear blanks, three way pipe, nuclear power station PWR primary loop piping etc.. Many types of specifications, the shape of the complex are numerous. In addition, the practicability is strong, has the development prospects and electroslag hot topping, centrifugal electroslagcasting and electroslag rapid remelting etc..

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