世界上最高的岛屿_地理世界之最

编者:地理学者 来源:未知 时间:2014-12-05 11:12 最签:最高 浏览:

世界上最高的岛屿是新几内亚岛(New Guinea),它是太平洋第一大岛屿和世界第二大岛(仅次于格陵兰) 。其海拔高达五千米。它虽然在赤道附近,但它的山峰却常年积雪。 新几内亚岛

  世界上最高的岛屿是新几内亚岛(New Guinea),它是太平洋第一大岛屿和世界第二大岛(仅次于格陵兰) 。其海拔高达五千米。它虽然在赤道附近,但它的山峰却常年积雪。

  

新几内亚岛卫星图

 

  新几内亚岛又称伊里安岛。马来群岛东部岛屿,位于太平洋西部,澳大利亚北部。位于西太平洋的赤道南侧,西与亚洲东南部的马来群岛毗邻,南隔阿拉弗拉海和珊瑚海与澳大利亚大陆东北部相望 。在东经141°以东及新不列颠 、新爱尔兰等岛屿为独立国家巴布亚新几内亚 ; 141°以西及沿海岛屿为印度尼西亚的一省,称伊里安查亚。全岛两部分接触极少,两国于1979年签订的边境条约禁止人民到边境地区居住。 全岛略呈西北-东南走向。东西长约2400千米 ,中部最宽处640千米。面积约78.6万平方千米 ,连同沿海属岛在内共81.8万平方千米。全岛多山。中部群山盘结,自西北伸向东南,形成连绵延续的中央山脉。大部分山地、高原,海拔都在4000米以上,是世界上海拔最高的岛。汇集西部的高耸山脉,总称为雪山山脉,其中最高峰为查亚峰(旧称卡斯滕士峰),海拔5030米,为大洋洲最高点。

  

新几内亚岛查亚峰

 

  东段为马勒山脉,山势向东逐渐降低,而后再向东南延伸,形成巴布亚半岛的欧文·斯坦利岭。全岛不少山峰都是死火山锥。部分山区近期还发生火山喷发,并有频繁的地震。这些东西向的高大山岭,到处悬崖峭壁,道路崎岖,成为全岛南北交通的巨大障碍。在中部山脊的南北两侧,有宽窄不一的沿海平原, 其中尤以南部的里古-弗莱平原为最大,有广阔低平的沿海沼泽和红树林。海岸曲折,多港湾。

  沿海有许多由于火山作用或珊瑚礁形成的岛屿。较大的河流都发源于中部山区,分由南北坡地流注海洋。主要河流在北部有曼伯拉莫河、塞皮克河、拉穆河、马克姆河,在南部有迪古尔河和弗莱河。这些河流上游坡陡流急,挟带大量泥沙,在中下游两岸形成大小不等的冲积平原。

  The world's highest island is the island of New Guinea (New Guinea), it is the first Pacific Islands and the second largest island in the world (after Greenland). Thealtitude of over five thousand meters. Although it is near the equator, but it has all the year round snow peaks.

  The island of New Guinea is also called Irian island. The eastern islands of the Malay Archipelago, located in the Western Pacific, northern australia. Located in the Western Pacific Ocean south of the equator, the Malay Archipelago and adjacent to the west of Southeast Asia, south across the Arafura Sea and the Coral Sea andnortheast across the continent of australia. In the east longitude 141 degrees EastNew Britain, Ireland and other islands as an independent state of Papua New Guinea;141 degrees west and the coastal islands as a province of Indonesia, said that inAnchaya. The two part of the island of contact is few, the border treaty between the two countries signed in 1979 to prohibit people living in border areas. The island is slightly Northwest - Southeast direction. Something about 2400 kilometers, the central640 km widest point. An area of about 786000 square kilometers, together with thecoastal islands, a total of 818000 square kilometers. The island is mountainous. The central mountains along from northwest toward the southeast, forming a continuouscontinuation of the central mountain range. Most of the mountain, plateau, elevation 4000 meters in the above, is the world's highest elevation of the island. The mountains towering Western together, collectively referred to as the snow capped mountains, the highest peak for the Cha Yafeng (formerly known as CASS Teng Shifeng), 5030 meters above sea level, is the highest point in Oceania.

  The eastern part is Mahler ridge mountains gradually reduced to the East, and thenextended to the southeast, forming the Papua Peninsula Erwin Stanley ling. The islandmany peaks are extinct volcanic cone. The mountainous part of recent volcanic eruptions also occurred, and there are frequent earthquake. These things to the tallmountains, around the cliffs, rugged road, has become a great obstacle to the north-south traffic island. In the middle of the ridge north and south sides, there is not anarrow coastal plain, especially in the south of the ancient Frye plain is the largest,with broad flat coastal marshes and mangrove. The winding coast, many harbor.

  There are many because of the coastal volcanic or coral reefs form islands. The larger rivers are originated from the central mountains, consists of South and NorthSlope streamer marine. The main rivers are Manbola Mo River, the Sepik River, pullMu River, Markham River in the north, there are digul River in the South and fry.These rivers upstream slope is steep and rapid flow, large amount of sedimententrainment, ranging from the size of the alluvial plain formed in the lower reaches of the two sides.

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